Attitudes, Ethics & Responsibilities AER2

With appropriate decision making skills, clinical reasoning and judgement so that they will:




Learning Outcome

  • Involve patients and appropriate carers in clinical decision making.
  • Ensure that treatment accounts for the individual patient’s choices, wishes, co-morbities and long term conditions.
  • Respect that a patient with mental capacity can make a decision about their management that appears to contradict clinical advice.
  • Act as the patient’s advocate and understand the importance of protecting the safety of individuals and society.


CbD MSF Part 2 FRCOphth 


Feedback likely from: medical staff, Allied Health Professional (nurse, optometrist, orthoptists)

Target Year of Achievement

End of foundation years (annual review)

Related Learning Outcomes


  • Review your clinical decisions and re-appraise the patient’s beliefs and their best interests. Re-consider the options.
  • Consider what prejudices you may have which could adversely affect your decisions.
  • Identify the differing roles of factual knowledge and moral values in guiding a patient to a decision.
  • Give the patient adequate time to consider their decision. Consider how you can empower the patient to take responsibility for their own condition.
  • Consider whether there is any situation in which you should go against a patient’s decision.
  • Consider the reasons a patient may actively or passively, fail to comply with best advice and how hard you should try to persuade such a patient to change their mind.
  • Consider whether and how you can continue to treat a patient who chooses not to take your advice.
  • Consider your approach where the best treatment for your NHS patient is not available on the NHS.
  • Reflect on feedback collected from colleagues when you have been in such a situation.


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