Patient Management PM13

To assess a patient clinically, in OPD and elsewhere, in particular to:




Learning Outcome

  • Recognise when a patient’s ocular problem is a manifestation of a systemic disorder.
  • Recognise when an ophthalmic diagnosis may indicate an increased risk of a systemic illness.
  • Explain the implications to the patient and make appropriate arrangements for further management.


CbD Part 2 FRCOphth 


Target Year of Achievement

Year 7

Related Learning Outcomes

CA11 CA13 IH3 BCS9 


  • It is important to recognise the important associations between some ophthalmic conditions and systemic diseases.
  • Ensure that you are aware when, and to whom, it is appropriate to refer a patient for further investigation or management of a systemic problem.
  • Discuss the significance of your findings with the patient and explain the need for further investigations or management.
  • Consider local and national guidelines and protocols that may enable you to estimate the risk of systemic disease e.g. Transient monocular visual loss and stroke risk or Xanthelasmata and vascular disease.
  • Consider the patient holistically, rather than simply focussing on their ophthalmic problem alone.


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