Patient Management PM14

To assess a patient clinically, in OPD and elsewhere, in particular to:




Learning Outcome


  • Identify when a patient may benefit from the use of spectacle lenses and prisms.
  • Assess the type and strength of lens or prism and provide an appropriate prescription.
  • Liaise with and, where indicated, seek advice from optometrists and orthoptists.
  • Advise a patient on the purpose, duration and optical effects of the prescription.



CbD Refraction Certificate Part 1 FRCOphth  Part 2 FRCOphth 


Target Year of Achievement

Year 3

Related Learning Outcomes



  • Know the presenting complaints of patients with refractive errors.
  • It is important to be aware of when it is advisable to correct a refraction error and when it should be left uncorrected.
  • Know the different forms of spectacle lenses (e.g. monofocal, bifocal, varifocal) and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each type of lens.
  • Understand the different forms of prism correction available and when their use should be advised.
  • Know the associations of refractive error with other ophthalmic or systemic disease e.g. cataract, diabetes and keratoconus.
  • Understand how a refractive error will influence the management of eye disease, particularly with reference to cataract surgery.


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