Patient Management PM16

To assess a patient clinically, in OPD and elsewhere, in particular to:




Learning Outcome

  • Understand the significance of previous refractive surgery on current ophthalmic treatments, particularly cataract surgery.
  • Know the main benefits and limitations of various refractive techniques, including excimer laser, femtosecond laser, advanced surface ablation, LASIK, LASEK, SMILE, and refractive lens exchange.
  • Be familiar with the main indications, limitations and contra-indications to such surgery.
  • Be familiar with the types of bespoke IOLs that are available for cataract surgery and refractive lens exchange; multifocal, trifocal, extended focus and non-rotationally symmetric multifocal IOLs as well as their toric versions.
  • Be familiar with common methods of treating presbyopia.
  • Recognise and manage the complications of refractive surgery.


CbD Part 2 FRCOphth 


Target Year of Achievement

Year 7

Related Learning Outcomes



  • Understand how to calculate the lens implant power following refractive surgery.
  • Advise patients on the risks and benefits of refractive surgery. It should be noted that trainees are not expected to have the deeper understanding of refractive surgery which would enable recommending such a procedure, but must be able to educate their patients and inform them to seek an expert opinion if they wish to consider treatment.
  • Know the alternative corrective techniques which are available to a patient with refractive error (spectacles, contact lenses, clear lens extraction and refractive surgery). The benefits and limitations of each of these options should also be understood.
  • Recognise and manage the complications of refractive surgery as they present to the eye department, and understand when the original provider of treatment will need to be involved in ongoing care.


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